[144] The formerly thriving Nueva canción scene suffered from the exile or imprisonment of many bands and individuals. September 1973 hatte der damals 58-jährige Pinochet den demokratisch gewählten sozialistischen Präsidenten Salvador Allende gestürzt. In response Silva founded the Vicariate in its place. [22], Manuel Blanco | While Britain regularly condemned the junta at the United Nations for its human rights abuses, bilateral relations between the two were not affected to the same degree. The first, from 1975 to 1982, corresponds to the period when most of the reforms were implemented. Pinochet did not endorse any candidate publicly. Hierzu fälschte, wie der damalige Sprecher der Militärjunta heute selbst zugibt,[4] der Geheimdienst der Junta Dokumente mit Plänen der Allende-Regierung, u. a. konservative Politiker zu ermorden. The far-left and the far-right performed poorly in the election.[4]. März kam Pinochet gegen eine Kaution von 2.000.000 Pesos (etwa 3500 Euro) frei. Patricio Aylwin | 1988 wurde Pinochet aufgrund eines in der Verfassung von 1980 festgelegten Volksentscheides vom chilenischen Volk aus dem Amt gewählt, was den Übergang zur Demokratie zur Folge hatte. Wages decreased by 8%. Sein Schicksal dokumentierte einer seiner Söhne durch ein Buch und Interview. Following the restoration of Chilean democracy and during the successive administrations that followed Pinochet, the Chilean economy has prospered, and today the country is considered a Latin American success story. Arturo Alessandri | Die Verfassung sah eine starke Stellung des Präsidenten vor. März 1990 diktatorisch, erst als Vorsitzender einer Militärjunta und später als Präsident. Hudson, Rex A., ed. Cotes : 18.6.1. mars 52-août 63 ». [124], Green deputies Noël Mamère, Martine Billard and Yves Cochet on September 10, 2003 requested a Parliamentary Commission on the "role of France in the support of military regimes in Latin America from 1973 to 1984" before the Foreign Affairs Commission of the National Assembly, presided by Edouard Balladur. According to sources, the alleged invasion scheme could be seen from the Chilean's government perspective as a plan for some kind of leftist counterattack. [101] Die gestürzten Regierungsmitglieder wurden wie Staatsfeinde verfolgt. Vgl. Chile was neutral during the Falkland War, but its Westinghouse long-range radar deployed at Punta Arenas, in southern Chile, gave the British task force early warning of Argentinian air attacks, which allowed British ships and troops in the war zone to take defensive action. A right-wing authoritarian military dictatorship ruled Chile for seventeen years, between September 11, 1973 and March 11, 1990. Am 15. The electoral system meant that the largely Pinochet-sympathetic right was overrepresented in parliament in such a way that it could block any reform to the constitution. [66], Another dictatorship member critical of Pinochet, Arturo Yovane, was removed from his post as minister of mining in 1974 and appointed ambassador at the new Chilean embassy in Tehran. Discuss. Salvador Allende | As a result of this, Manuel Contreras, Director of DINA, threatened Cardinal Silva Henriquez that his safety could be at risk if the Church continued to interfere which in turn resulted in death threats and intimidation from agents of the regime. Eine andere Gruppe waren die blandos, die keine permanente Militärdiktatur anstrebten, diese unterstützten die Chicago Boys. Chile became embroiled in an unprecedented controversy in 1998. [126][127], When then Minister of Foreign Affairs Dominique de Villepin traveled to Chile in February 2004, he claimed that no cooperation between France and the military regimes had occurred. Seine Tochter Lucía verteidigte in einer Rede vor dem Sarg nachdrücklich den Putsch Pinochets gegen Allende. [88] Capitalist involvement was increased, the Chilean pension system and healthcare were privatized, and Superior Education was also placed in private hands. Pinochet maintained strict command over the armed forces thus he could depend on them to censor the media, arrest opposition leaders and repress demonstrations. Das diktatorische Regime wollte seine Herrschaft nach innen und außen legitimieren. Another reason was the propagandized fear of the spread of communism, which was particularly important in the context of the Cold War. The U.S. government had been interfering in Chilean politics since 1961, and it spent millions trying to prevent Allende from coming to power, and subsequently undermined his presidency through financing opposition. Estimates of figures for victims of state violence vary. Due to intense U.S. Pressure at the last minute (while Pinochet's plane was halfway en route over the Pacific), Marcos cancelled the visit and denied Pinochet landing rights in the country. [20] As a result, reacting to widespread public demand for intervention, the military began planning for a military coup which would ultimately take place on September 11, 1973. [64] Leigh tried to fight his dismissal from the military and government junta but on July 24, 1978 his office was blocked by paratroopers. Der Leichnam wurde in der 130 Kilometer nordwestlich von Santiago de Chile gelegenen Küstenstadt Concón verbrannt. [83] They continued to operate throughout the 1990s, being designated as a terrorist organisation the U.S. Department of State and MI6, until supposedly ceasing to operate in 1999.[84]. Bei der Verfolgung von chilenischen Oppositionellen kam es auch zu Gewaltverbrechen des chilenischen Militärs im Ausland. It was amended considerably on August 17, 1989 (via referendum) and on 22 September 2005 (legislatively), … Leigh's primary concern was Pinochet's consolidating of the legislative and executive branches of government under the new government. It was apolitical in a spirit of collaboration rather than conflict with the government. Pinochet empfing bereits am 3. Am 18. The policy towards the sympathetic youth contrasted with the murder, surveillance and forced disappearances the dissident youth faced from the regime. Collier, Simon, and William F Sater. "[59], Starting in the late 1970s the regime began to use a tactic of faking combats, usually known by its Spanish name: "falsos enfrentamientos". On 30 August 1988 Pinochet was declared to be the candidate.[154]. Die Verhaftung löste in Chile Unruhen aus. Initially Cuban support for resistance consisted of clandestine distribution of funds to Chile, human rights campaigns at the UN to isolate the Chilean dictatorship, and efforts to undermine US-Chilean bilateral relations. [140], Influenced by Antonio Gramsci's work on cultural hegemony, proposing that the ruling class can maintain power by controlling cultural institutions, Pinochet clamped down on cultural dissidence. Zwei Tage später entzog das Berufungsgericht in Santiago, auf Antrag des Ermittlungsrichters Juan Guzmán Tapia mit 13:9 Stimmen, Pinochets Immunität. In the days that followed his military coup, hundreds of people, were rounded up and taken to the two main sport stadiums in the capital, Santiago. The "Chilean Variation" has been seen as a potential model for nations that fail to achieve significant economic growth. Kaum drei Wochen später – am 11. [122] Pinochet subsequently visited Margaret Thatcher for tea on more than one occasion. He participated in the design of important speeches of Pinochet, and provided frequent political and doctrinal advice and consultancy. In 1983 another five banks were nationalized and two banks had to be put under government supervision. The training Pinochet and his military received conditioned them not to distinguish civilians from armed rebels, as the nature of the threat was an ideological one - not a military one. Da 56 Prozent der Abstimmenden für mehrere Kandidaten votierten, kam es ein Jahr später zu freien Wahlen. Oft kam es zu Massenverhaftungen, indem fast alle Anwesenden festgenommen wurden. Pinochet developed suspicion of COPACHI, leading to its dissolution in late 1975. [14] Two weeks before the coup, public dissatisfaction with rising prices and food shortages led to protests like the one at the Plaza de la Constitución which had been dispersed with tear gas. Es wird ebenfalls belegt, dass die Folterungen systematisch eingesetzt wurden und keinesfalls Ausnahmen waren: sämtliche Teilstreitkräfte der Armee und alle Sicherheitsorgane – Polizei und Geheimdienste – waren beteiligt. In the face of Chile’s economic, social and political problems General Augusto Pinochet ousted the democratically elected president Salvador Allende in 1973. Gemäß der von ihm auf sich maßgeschneiderten Verfassung blieb Pinochet bis 1998 Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres. [76], From 1975 to 1980 the SNJ arranged a series of ritualized acts in cerro Chacarillas reminiscent of Francoist Spain. [4][better source needed], There has been a large amount of debate over the extent of US government involvement in destabilising the Allende government. 139, April/Mai 2020, S. 36 ff, Abschlussbericht der „Comisión Nacional de Prisón Política y Tortura“, 2005, S. 228, zahlreiche andere südamerikanische Militärs dieser Zeit, Escuela Militar del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, Comisión Nacional de Verdad y Reconciliación, Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura. Expressed his wishes to settle the Beagle conflict and Pinochet his concerns Chilean... Were large cuts to incomes and social services die Putschisten begründeten ihr Handeln damit, dass die im... Bestandteil der Verfassung bis 1989 als Staatspräsident im Amt bleiben 1980 constitution, Jaime Guzmán on April! Lent vast sums anew als Senator durch das Oberste Gericht bestätigt the context the... Straw am 2 28,000 arrests in which the majority of those detained were incarcerated and in a national held! 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