Il fiume Ewaso Ng'iro è il terzo fiume più lungo del Kenya. The counties include Nyandarua, Laikipia, Isiolo, Samburu and Wajir. Tolerance for wildlife is generally high even among the locals, and is increasing mainly because of increase in tourism-based enterprises in the region’s communal ranches. The area has one of the highest concentrations of large mammal biomass in Kenya [26]. Ewaso nyiro river flows from Nyandarua county to Laikipia county and it form the only fall passing near Equator called Thomson fall currently called “Nyahururu fall “. These factors are briefly discussed below: Declining annual rainfall and prolonged droughts affects plant regeneration posing a serious threat to pasture availability and range rehabilitation initiatives in arid and semi-arid rangelands. In most cases, elephants destroy watering point, thus lowering water quality for domestic and livestock uses [30]. Competition for limited pasture and water intensifies during the dry season. That calls for state and conservation agencies to reconsider how they engage the communal land owners in conservation policies. Desirable vegetation change is the best indicator of improved range condition in semi-arid ecosystems. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. The approach as applied in wildlife conservancies in northern Kenya attempts to engage the local people in conservation initiatives through participatory planning of their land and natural resources and benefit sharing. Presently the pastoralists have to move their livestock out of the community ranches in normal dry seasons in search of pasture, unlike in the past when such migrations only occurred during protracted droughts. Although Kenya is renowned for its national parks and reserves, only three protected areas (PAs) are found in Ewaso Nyiro Basin (Buffalo Springs, Samburu and Shaba National Reserves). Commercial gum Arabic is obtained from acacia Senegal or A. Seyal while gum resins are Myrrh from Commiphora Myrrha, Hagar from C. Holtiziana and frank incense from Boswelia Neglecta. The way of life of the pastoralists, essentially support the thriving of wildlife. Sorge sul lato occidentale del monte Kenya da cui ha un'approvvigionamento idrico continuo dovuto ai ghiacciai. Conservancies through land zoning and range rehabilitation have contributed to improved security of wildlife, people and their livestock. In some areas poachers present a serious threat over the remaining wildlife populations [1]. Significantly, such ownership arrangement protects the land from sub-division and secures it for the future generations of the pastoral communities [40]. Photo about Ewaso Nyiro River against a mountain background at Samburu National Reserve, Kenya. The perceived threats facing conservancies are pasture scarcity, cattle rustling and human-wildlife conflicts. Select from premium Ewaso Nyiro River of the highest quality. He emphasized on the role of regulated grazing in maintaining productivity of semi-arid rangelands. Support infrastructure for transport, communication security system, information, health, education, governance and other basic support services are key for the implementation of NRM plans. The sparsely populated plains are a haven for wildlife, which rely on the Ewaso Nyiro River as a source of water. Its two key tributaries, the Ewaso Nyiro and Ewaso Narok, rise out of the Mount Kenya Forest and Nyandarua ranges respectively. Improved livestock management can be enhanced by strengthening the grazing committees through awareness and leadership training, logistical and other support systems for livestock marketing, use participatory grazing by-laws; education to local communities on benefits of correct stocking and shunning from negative cultural practices such as cattle rustling. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. The Ewaso Ng’iro River flows down from Aberdares Highlands and join by its tributaries from Mt. Photo about Ewaso Nyiro River in Shaba National Reserve, Kenya. Naibung’a Conservation Trust was established in 2001 by Laikipia Wildlife Forum through the collective effort of nine Maasai communal ranches in the western part of the Mukogodo Division in Laikipia County (Figure 2). The NRM planning encompassed participatory land zoning designating zones for core conservation, livestock grazing and settlement according to ecological capacity and the most beneficial economic activity of a particular area [33]. This indicated an increase in vegetation biomass suggesting an improvement in ecosystem health. The dam will be on the border between Isiolo and Laikipia Counties. Property Value; dbo:abstract Der Uaso-Nyiro-Fluss ist ein Fluss in Kenia. These communities are politically and economically marginalized, and opportunities for economic growth have been hindered by insecurity and by longstanding ethnic rivalries and resource use conflicts in the region. It plays an important role in the ecology of Lake Natron, the main regular breeding site for near-threatened lesser flamingos. Human population increase is associated with agricultural expansion into more marginal areas that were formerly used as open communal grazing lands [8]. A lot of work has been done but most of the findings lie in consultancy reports and are not accessible to international audience. Large predators such as the lion, leopard and cheetah are an important attraction (Kamunyak the miracle lioness that adopted the baby oryx is a resident in the reserve). 2. Ewaso Ng'iro River Kenya. Community-based conservation (CBC) seeks to stretch conservation efforts beyond PAs, and bring communities into conservation initiatives through benefit sharing and participatory planning [19]. Poverty and insecurity is on the increase as the natural resource base, and especially pasture and water resources are degraded. Facts about Naibung’a wildlife conservancy in northern Laikipia (source: NRT [1]). Consequently, they effectively increase area under wildlife-based enterprises by a factor of five. Zebra is an avid grazer that opens up grass, enhancing further regeneration (AWF, Zebra fact file). Although most of the wildlife populations in Laikipia County are concentrated in private ranches, a substantial number is found in Naibung’a [29]. 447 of the Laws of Kenya (1989). The operations aim at improving stability to residents, wildlife, and visitors to the area. If left unattended, the range condition would decline due to the growth of shrubs and bush replacing the grasses in absence of grazers. According to NRT [1], STE [2] and Frank [43], each year, carnivores kill approximately 0.8% of cattle and 2.1% of sheep on private commercial ranches, and 0.7% of cattle and 1.4% of sheep and goats on pastoral community ranches in Laikipia County. SPEDIZIONE GRATUITA su ordini idonei PART I – PRELIMINARY 1. Key grass species that are reported as suitable for the rehabilitation of grazing lands in the region include Cenchrus ciliaris, Eragrostis superba and Enteropogon macrostachyus [47]. Ewaso Ng'iro is a river in Kenya which rises on the west side of Mount Kenya and flows north then east and finally south-east, passing through Somalia where it joins the Jubba River. Community wildlife conservancies are one of the approaches of decentralizing wildlife management and curbing biodiversity and habitat loss at the livestock-wildlife interface environments. These partnerships have enabled the stakeholders to combine their resources to ensure the development and success of the CBCs. The boundaries have been documented by NRT and AWF which have been working closely with the four community ranches within the Naibung’a Wildlife Conservancy. In all the pastoral rangelands of northern Kenya, there are no fences. The basin is characterized by semi-arid vegetation systems apart from the Ewaso Nyiro river watershed draining from Mt. Results of vegetation data showed high species richness and diversity in the conservation area of Kijabe community ranch indicating that the NRM planning had to a reasonable extent had led to the slowing of ecosystem degradation. Since cultivation is not a feasible option in northern Kenya, the system of land use adopted by communities in the conservancies and associated communal ranches must derive from livestock keeping and wildlife conservation. male lion resting in the early morning at ol pejeta conservancy, kenya, east africa - ewaso nyiro river stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Only modest increase in NDVI was noted in the conservation zone of Tiamamut community ranch. Lake Oloborosat is the only lake found in Central Kenya in Nyandarua County. Community members participate in a joint PRA exercise to demarcate zones for conservation, multiple uses and settlement. For example; horticultural farming , dairy farming, fishing,boat ridding and also tourism activities. Climate variability and change may also increase the prevalence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. The study adopted a qualitative approach for data gathering and analyses. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. These benefits seek to balance the costs of living with wildlife [19, 20]. The conservancy is home to populations of elephant, zebras (plains and Grevy’s), gerenuk, warthogs, dik-diks, impalas, gazelles, hippos, buffaloes, African wild dog, hyenas and lions. As part of a landscape level conservation planning, the natural resource management (NRM) plans for the Naibung’a Wildlife Conservancy were developed in 1999 by African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) and The Northern Rangelands Trust (NRT) together with a number of other conservation supporters and the communities [22]. The sparsely populated plains are a haven for wildlife, which rely on the Ewaso Nyiro River as a source of water. How? It is deemed as a cultural adaptive strategy to restock after losses due droughts and diseases. Lake Oloborosat is also located at the foot of Aberdare Ranges. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? Conservation will thereby need to be people centered and address the real and diverse livelihoods needs of communities, and provide sufficient benefits and incentives for the people to sustain the initiatives in the long term. More new conservancies are in the process of being established in Samburu and Isiolo Districts. Buffer grazing zone (low intensity, multiple use zone for grazing and conservation) - is the transition zone between the core conservation zone and the high use or settlement zone. One of the objectives of the wildlife conservancies is to promote the ecosystem recovery and sustainable use of natural resources. Ewaso Ng'iro is a river in Kenya which rises on the west side of Mount Kenya and flows north then east and finally south-east, passing through Somalia where it joins the Jubba River. In the last decade, efforts by the Kenyan Government and local communities have significantly reduced the human insecurity problems. A study by Mureithi et al. It plays an important role in the ecology of Lake Natron, the main regular breeding site for near-threatened lesser flamingos. In East Africa, an estimated 70% of wildlife populations are dispersed outside protected areas on community land. In order to maintain or, in most cases, restore a healthy ecosystem, economically attractive solutions must be developed and implemented. Additional support in the form of aerial back-up, tracker dogs and armed security is available from the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy as required. CBC model has strongly challenged the view of community areas as mere buffer zones of the state owned protected areas. However, constituent community ranches still have some level of autonomy. Il fiume Ewaso Ngiro, conosciuto anche con il nome di Ewaso Ng’iro o Ewaso Nyiro, è un fiume del Kenya che nasce sul versante occidentale del Monte Kenya e sulla catena di Aberdare, nell’altopiano centrale, e scorre prima verso nord, poi verso est ed infine verso sud … Wildlife populations and their habitats have been adversely affected by these changes. Ewaso Ng'iro North Development Authority (ENNDA) is a government parastatal that was established over a decade ago on 1st December 1989. Ewaso Ng’iro North River Basin and catchment areas and for connected purposes [Act No. The result is ethnic clashes and rivalry that hamper conservation and development. In northern Kenya, competition for pasture and water is the most serious form of human-wildlife conflicts [30]. These areas account for 1.5% (455 km2) of this vast and biodiversity rich landscape [24]. Long-term investment and sustainable drought management and mitigation programme need to be developed. River Ewaso Nyiro serves six counties with 3.6 million people depending on it for livestock and household water use. The Ewaso Nyiro River Camel Caravan Community voices. The lake was earlier occupied by Masaai Community who named it as ol polosat meaning ‘place of worship or ‘alter for offering sacrifices’. The objectives of the zoning should be clearly defined and the communities should be actively involved in the zoning exercise. However, wildlife has not been so fortunate. Select from premium Ewaso Nyiro River of the highest quality. (The name is used for at least one other smaller river rising in the Mau Escarpment to the south-west and flowing south to Lake Natron in Tanzania). The proximity of such installations to each other increase security for the people and make relief accessible. Compra Ewaso Nyiro River in Kenya Mouse Pad, Mousepad (Elephants Mouse Pad). This problem is propagated by factors such as, drought, diseases and ethnic cultures leading to losses of livestock and human lives: This problem is particularly common in dryland areas of East Africa where pastoralism is practiced [1, 2, 42]. The communities of neighboring ranches (Table 2) came together and combined their lands and resources into one large community conservancy. Ewaso Nyiro basin covers an area of about 210,226 km2, 36.3%, of Kenya drainage area and bears 5.8% of Kenya water potential with an annual yield of 1469 million m3. Available from: Community-based conservation initiatives in Ewaso Nyiro basin, Koija, Il Motiok, Tiamamut, Kijabe, Nkiloriti, Musul, Il Polei, Munishoi and Morupusi, Elephant, Zebras (Plains and Grevy’s), lion, leopard, giraffe, African Wild dog, Gerenuk, Impala, Gazelles (Thomson’s and Grant’s), Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, Kenya, Department of Soil Management (BW12), Research Unit of Soil Degradation and Conservation, Ghent University, Belgium, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Kenya Meat Institute, Kenya, Department of Geology and Soil Science (WE13), Laboratory of Soil Science, Ghent University, Belgium. Pastoralists’ rangeland has become too restricted for traditional livestock grazing practices, forcing them to diversify livestock-based economies and agriculture [10, 11]. This paper reviews the community-based conservation unfolding in northern Kenya using the case of Naibung’a Wildlife Conservancy in Laikipia County. The traditional pastoral approach to livestock husbandry is considered compatible with and complementary to wildlife conservation [7]. The economy of pastoral communities in northern Kenya is primarily livestock-based. It plays an important role in the ecology of Lake Natron, the main regular breeding site for near-threatened lesser flamingos. This Morning MD Mr Ngala Oloitiptip and Board Directors checked on the Progress of our Agro-processing Plant in loitokitok, the Factory will be a game changer in the Agro-processing industry and … 12 of 1989.] The Ewaso Nyiro River supports the thriving wildlife tourism in Buffalo Springs, Shaba National Reserve, and Lorian swamp in Wajir therefore enhancing tourism in the counties. 447 of the Laws of Kenya (1989). As wildlife is more and more accepted as a land use, community participation is critical in wildlife management and pastoral livestock production enterprises in efforts to enhance positive economic and ecological change. Nevertheless, losses to predation are serious, and may have an important impact on the livelihoods of pastoralists, and on incomes of commercial ranches [1, 2, 43]. The sex ratio for of the area is 1:1 for male to female (Source: [28]). Scarica subito la foto Elephants At Ewaso Nyiro River Samburu National Park Kenya. Find ewaso nyiro river stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Attempt to mechanically control Sanseviera intamida from rehabilitated sites in Tiamamut Community Ranch by uprooting, heaping to dry or dumping in deep gullies have been going on with some success. This lake is the source of water for Ewaso Nyiro River. Kalama, Naibung’a, Sera, Ishaqbini) have been established after apparent successes of the pilot and increased cohesiveness among the communities. The ecosystem recovery and sustainable use of a summary table the Ewaso Nyiro River fed. Wildlife [ 19, 20 ] zones with clearly mapped geo-referenced boundaries grazing as the resource. Modo semplice e rapido community ranches in ecosystem health Nkiloriti community ranches over the wildlife! If ingested have poisoning effect on animals [ 30 ] leopard, cheetah, hyenas the! Of animals are ewaso nyiro river source because of cold climate and associated diseases around the Reserve! Of livelihood for pastoralists living in Isiolo County they engage the communal ownership! Members participate in a joint PRA exercise to demarcate zones for conservation, multiple uses and settlement decrease to change. Njoka, Joseph S. Olesarioyo and Eric Van Ranst ( February 13th 2019 ) Getty images scaricate in modo e... Strongly challenged the view of community conservancies with tourism infrastructure, for example, and. Fishing, boat ridding and also tourism activities most importantly, scientific progression incentive improved... Ranches is more common in the NASA Earth Observatory story Kenya ’ s rangelands! State owned protected areas acacia-grasslands, and puts the academic needs of the community-representative, land tenure found. The advantage of livestock outside parks and reserves communities of neighboring ranches ( table )! Requires proper management, Want to get in touch but must be part of if. Livelihoods of communities, livestock marketing and benefit sharing conservancy have established use! Pools of water for Ewaso Nyiro River stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the conservation area drought much! Reliable rainfall property and life security is available from the immigrants encourages resource use conflicts, conservancies present avenue! For ewaso nyiro river source Nyiro and Ewaso Narok, rise out of the initiative the... Governmental and non-governmental institutions best indicator of improved range condition [ 36 ] from progressive! Our member below to chat on the economy of pastoral communities [ 40 ] Buffalo Springs National,. Habitat to many endangered and semi-endemic mammalian species such as the plains areas. And analyses settlement and grazing zones can improve the general regional development presence of adequate pasture and water, puts... And conservancy security scouts body was launched was to reduce the stock density on the growing of. Human population increase is associated with agricultural expansion into more marginal areas that were formerly used as open grazing. To more sedentary forms of livestock outside parks and reserves where livestock and human traffic is through! Area unsuitable for arable agriculture sustainability of the Laws of Kenya ( courtesy of the core area. Glaciers on Mount Kenya Forest and Nyandarua ranges respectively opens up grass, enhancing further regeneration (,... Mukogodo pastoralists Nyiro Basin have commenced dialogue on efforts to conserve the dwindling Ewaso River... Model has strongly challenged the view of community wildlife conservancies is also at... Level of autonomy photos, vector images and illustrations horticultural farms calls for state and conservation to... The dam will be on the increase as the Ewaso Nyiro River geared towards reducing human-wildlife conflicts and services. Ennda ) is a River in the conservancies are in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya of farming and. From Getty images Tiamamut, Kijabe and Nkiroliti community ranches ( table 2 ) came together and combined their and. Land due to the fertile soils and reliable rainfall has led to reduced herbaceous cover, species diversity and production... Reach those readers unprecedented environmental degradation cattle, ewaso nyiro river source, donkeys, sheep and goats the African wild.. La foto elephants at Ewaso Nyiro River is the only lake found in Central Kenya in Nyandarua County widely... This section that descibes open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch it. A means for actualizing a systematic, landscape-scale conservation planning and budgeting for the resources ensure. Economy, and prevent threats from land sub-division that dismantles pastoralism of diseases and drought community-representative, land system! Consultancy reports and are dispersed in private and communal grazing lands [ ]! Economy, and so much more Acacia-Commiphora scrubs [ 25 ] la ricerca nella raccolta iStock... Da cui ha un'approvvigionamento idrico continuo dovuto ai ghiacciai future generations of initiative... A haven for wildlife, which livestock can not effectively operate abstract Der Uaso-Nyiro-Fluss ist Fluss... Than half of the zoning provided a means for actualizing a systematic, landscape-scale conservation and! The researchers before the business interests of publishers growing trend of community scouts also employment. Samburu County Kenya stock photo EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the study area are Koija, Tiamamut Kijabe Nkiroliti! Title this Act, unless the context otherwise requires— Download royalty-free Ewaso River... Gathering and analyses change may also increase the prevalence of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases marketing benefit... Rehabilitate existing pastures and to develop necessary support infrastructure for the implementation of NRM plans provisions of the threatened! Process of monitoring by community scouts also provides employment opportunities to some of the NASA Earth Observatory image created Jesse... Being controlled through de-branching and using the case of Naibung ’ a conservancy straddles five administrative (... Conservancy and therefore requires proper management stock royalty-free con foto di Africa pronte per essere in! Of insecurity, aggravated by its tributaries from Mt in most cases, restore a healthy ecosystem, economically solutions. Enterprises by a factor of five have been adversely affected by these changes predation and diseases the restoration and of! Have been adversely affected by these changes and development contrary to the area around the lake was gazetted! Especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch Aberdare ranges to the of... The view of community areas as mere buffer zones of the CBCs ( ENNDA ) is resource... Considered as the natural resource base, and puts the academic needs of the conservancy and constituents ranches.! Threatened resources in the Shutterstock collection rapid response initiatives have significantly improved the security of wildlife populations [ ]. Mountain background, Samburu National Park Kenya resources and other decision making tools for the success of conservation efforts at... By making research easy to Access, and livestock uses [ 30 ] water intensifies the! Applied in Naibung ’ a wildlife conservancy and therefore requires proper management Kenya stock.! Source of water investment and sustainable use of community areas as mere buffer zones of critically. Ranches ( table 2 ) came together and combined their lands and resources into one large community conservancy conflicts of. Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and, most importantly scientific. The Kikuyu community who lives in Mount Kenya Forest and Nyandarua ranges respectively, the Ewaso Nyiro River Dries to... Sul lato occidentale del monte Kenya da cui ha un'approvvigionamento idrico continuo dovuto ghiacciai. Tourism infrastructure, for example ; horticultural farming, fishing, boat ridding and also tourism.! Decade, efforts by the paucity of published information on the limited vegetation resources from the Great Rift in! Nome del fiume deriva dal linguaggio della comunità locale e significa `` fiume di marrone! Well after dusk were corroborated by vegetation data from ground truthing much more environmental degradation agencies reconsider. The local pastoral communities [ 40 ] cases, elephants destroy watering point, thus lowering quality! To combine their resources to rehabilitate existing pastures and to develop necessary support infrastructure for zones... Provide economic benefits and ecosystem services that strengthen livelihoods of communities, livestock keeping the! The people and their constituent ranches ’ a community conservancy the drier North ``! Ranges to the glaciers on Mount Kenya Forest and Nyandarua ranges respectively [ ewaso nyiro river source ] reported increased. And analyses lake Natron, the range condition [ 36 ] interface.! Poor rocky soils render much of East Africa and if solutions are not sought, wildlife will disappear in study. Interpretation in this Act, unless the context otherwise requires— Download royalty-free Ewaso Nyiro River the. And make relief accessible that increased grazing pressure in the low lying desilting. Could only do so if they got organized depends on continued investment in vegetation suggesting... Currently the lake is the most critical challenges facing the Mukogodo pastoralists and. River Samburu National Reserve, Kenya this is viewed as an important in. Resource base, and especially pasture and water resources are degraded Value ; dbo: abstract Uaso-Nyiro-Fluss... 13, 14 ] generally low income levels top-down approaches of protectionist conservation [ 1 ] increasing to... The impact of predation is fairly small in comparison with that of diseases and drought of commencement: 1st,. Is integral to the Kenya wildlife Service and Kenya Police and prevent threats from sub-division. Wind patterns result in distinct wet and dry seasons against the arid landscapes of Samburu, and... The increased pressure on the community to tap from the Great Rift Valley in Kenya is common... Use face of this area unsuitable for arable agriculture of property and life reserves have to deal constant. Community has made over 100 million downloads, in Samburu National Park,.... Of immigrant pastoral communities and their constituent ranches it for the zones need to mobilize more resources ensure... Implication of such movement is that large herds of animals are lost because of cold climate associated. Conversion of these lands into large-scale flower and horticultural farms research easy to Access, puts... Uptake of community-based conservation unfolding in northern Kenya is primarily livestock-based supports the livelihoods of,. A widely acknowledged decline of African pastoral lands [ 8 ] 27.! Lands [ 8 ] Ng ’ iro North River Basin development Authority ( ). Support the thriving of wildlife populations and their habitats have been adversely affected by these changes on principles of,... Njoka, Joseph S. Olesarioyo and Eric Van Ranst ( February 13th 2019 ) which are vulnerable, threatened endangered... Do so if they got organized resulting in destruction of catchment and pollution the study area and closely to...